The new authoritarians like Orbán or Erdoğan are political leaders who come to power in a way that conforms to the democratic electoral rules in Whatsapp Mobile Number List force in their countries, they hold pluralist and rather free elections, they successively get themselves re-elected, but, over time, , exercise power in increasingly less democratic conditions. This authoritarian drift, with characteristics that depend on the particularity of the country, the resistance capacity of its democratic institutions and its modality of international insertion, oscillates between authoritarianism and autocracy.
Fine, it is the elimination of pluralist elections and the disappearance of any possibility of alternation that constitutes the Rubicon that must be crossed to enter the Whatsapp Mobile Number List category of open dictatorship. Of course, during the electoral campaign, the elections take place in very unequal conditions to the benefit of the parties in Whatsapp Mobile Number List are blocked by the submission of the legal system to the government, but the announced results roughly represent the decision of the voters. From this point of view, the electoral defeats suffered in 2019 by the ruling parties in the big cities of Turkey and in the Hungarian capital remain an important indicator to distinguish Erdoğan and Orbán from Putin and, a fortiori , from Xi.
This new authoritarianism manifests itself with the intermittent implementation of a hyper-centralized regime in the hands of a single person. Taking advantage of moments of turbulence, such as the July 2016 coup attempt organized mostly by civilian and military members of the Fethullah Gülen brotherhood and quickly neutralized, Erdoğan carries out an Whatsapp Mobile Number List exacerbated centralization of the political system accompanied by a deinstitutionalization, as well as as for a deconstitutionalization. A skilful strategist, he knew how to take advantage of the failed coup to transform it into a counter-coup. And to compensate for the relative defection of his electorate in the big cities, especially because of the deteriorating economic situation and a certain weariness due to the permanent tension fueled by power,mhp , for its acronym in Turkish) after the coup attempt.